### Principles to Action: Core Teaching Practices (NCTM, 2014)

**1) Implement tasks that promote reasoning and problem solving. **Effective teaching of mathematics engages students in solving and discussing tasks that promote mathematical reasoning and problem solving and allow multiple entry points and varied solution strategies.

**2) Support productive struggle in learning mathematics. **Effective teaching of mathematics consistently provides students, individually and collectively, with opportunities and supports to engage in productive struggle as they grapple with mathematical ideas and relationships.

**3) Build procedural fluency from conceptual understanding. **Effective teaching of mathematics builds fluency with procedures on a foundation of conceptual understanding so that students, over time, become skillful in using procedures flexibly as they solve contextual and mathematical problems.

**4) Establish mathematics goals to focus learning. **Effective teaching of mathematics establishes clear goals for the mathematics that students are learning, situates goals within learning progressions, and uses the goals to guide instructional decisions.

**5) Use and connect mathematical representations. **Effective teaching of mathematics engages students in making connections among mathematical representations to deepen understanding of mathematics concepts and procedures and as tools for problem solving.

**6) Facilitate meaningful mathematical discourse. **Effective teaching of mathematics facilitates discourse among students to build shared understanding of mathematical ideas by analyzing and comparing student approaches and arguments.

**7) Pose purposeful questions. **Effective teaching of mathematics uses purposeful questions to assess and advance studentsâ€™ reasoning and sense making about important mathematical ideas and relationships.

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**8) Elicit and use evidence of student thinking. **Effective teaching of mathematics uses evidence of student thinking to assess progress toward mathematical understanding and to adjust instruction continually in ways that support and extend learning